Chemical Education in Asia-Pacific

CHEMICAL EDUCATION IN NEPAL

Mohan Singh Khadka

Nepal Chemical Society, Nepal Cultural Associetion Building, Kalikasthan, Dillibazar, Kathmandu, Nepal


Back to Chemical Education in Ajia Pacific Home Page


1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

In ancient times, the Vedas which is supposed to be the main root of Hindu religion used to be the source for learning different branches of knowledge including science subjects. Medical science developed in that period is very much popular and practised even at present days. There is a separate Medical College and a Sanskrit University in the country for providing education based on Hindu civilization.

Nepal has been a sovereign country ever since it came into existence as an unified nation in 1768 A.D. But unfortunately, it was under the autocratic Rana rule for 104 years (1846 A.D. to 1950 A.D.) during which the development of education was discouraged as a measure taken by the rulers to check the growth of political awareness in the public. The first school and only one college with the facilities for learning English language established during the dusk of the Rana reign in Nepal are Durbar High School (in 1854) and Trichandra College (in 1918) respectively. But, only the children belonging to the ruling elites and noble families could get admission in these institutions in those days. Tri-chandra College was affiliated to Patna University in the neighbouring Bihar State of India. In the begining these students had to go to Patna for their practical classes after completing theory classes because of the lack of laboratory facilities in the country. Later on, B.Sc. degree course was added in 1948 and M.Sc. degree course in Chemistry with specialisation in Organic Chemistry only got started from 1965.

Top of Page

2.PRESENT SITUATION

Political uprising reached its peak and as a result of which, democracy was established in Nepal in 1950 A.D. Then after, rapid development in the field of education started. The first university (Tribhuvan University) was established in 1959. At present, there are 26 Science campuses (mostly supported by Government) scattered throughout the kingdom. Students go to these campuses for Proficiency Certificate Level/Intermediate of Science and for Bachelor's degree in pure science and in applied science/technology. Master of Science in Chemistry with specialisation in Organic, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry courses is available only in the Central Department of Chemistry of Tribhuvan University. A private university, Kathmandu University, was estabilished in 1991 which offers Intermediate (two years) and Bachelors level (four years) science courses.

The fee which the students studying in Tribhuvan University and its campuses are paying is nominal because major bulk of the university's budget is being provided by the Government. In case of private campuses affiliated to Tribhuvan University and campuses affiliated to Kathmandu University (Private University) the fee is quite high. The quality of education in private campuses is comparatively better.

Schools are very densely spread through out the country. Number of private schools is continuously increasing in urban areas. Primary and lower secondary level of school education is totally free in Government schools. For girls, in some remote districts, scholarships are provided. In case of private schools, the fee is very high. All most all of the middle and upper class families send their children to private schools because the quality of education in these schools is far better than in Government schools. Number of students going abroad for their both undergraduate and post graduate studies is increasing every year. This new trend has created a big concern at present.

The minimum qualification to enter into Government service as a Chemist in officer rank or University service as an Assistant Lecturer is M.Sc. in Chemistry. Generally the graduates in pure science give first priority to Chemistry for doing their post-graduation. This is mainly because the job opportunity is more in Chemistry in comparision to other subjects. Some private industries employ B.Sc. level Chemists to perform the routine work. Perhaps with the introduction of 3 years B.Sc. degree course instead of 2 years the minimum qualification to enter into Government service in officer rank will be dropped down to B.Sc. The number of post graduates (with M.Sc. or Ph.D. degrees) is highest in Chemistry in comparision to any other subjects in the country at present.

Nepal Chemical Society has about 800 members and is third biggest among the professional societies (next to Medical and Engineering Associations). Organising seminars and work-shops at various levels, arranging talk programmes from renowned Chemists, publications of journals and news bulletins and awarding prizes and certificates of appreciation to the Chemists for their outstanding contributions are the usual activities of this society. It is hoped that this society will play a vital role in the promotion of chemical education in the country in the days to come.

Top of Page

3. EDUCATION STRUCTURE

The whole of the education structure can be divided mainly into three levels. They are :

Duration

Grade

School Level
Primary

5 years

I-V

Lower Secondary

3 years

VI-VIII

Secondary

2 years

XI-XII

(newly introduced in 1990)
College/Campus Level (Undergraduate)
Intermediate/Proficiency Certificate

2 years

XI-XII

Bachelor's/Diplom

4 years

XIII-XVI (K.U.)

2 years

XIII-XIV (T.U.)

(Tribhuvan University is introducing 3 years Bachelor level degree course from 1996)
Central Department (Post Graduate)
Master's Degre

2 years

XV-XVI (T.U)

(from 1996)

XVI-XVII

Doctor of Philosophy

Top of Page

4.CHEMISTRY TEACHING AND COURSE OF STUDY

Detail courses of study followed in Chemistry at, Proficiency Certificate and Bachelor of Science (T.U.) are given in the annex - 1.

4.1. School Level :

Science course in Government schools at primary and secondary levels consist of integration of different branches of science with special emphasis on environmental aspects. The medium of instruction is Nepalese language. In case of secondary level, Chemistry courses account for about 25% of the total courses in science.

The medium of teaching is English in private schools. Knowledge of English language is considered as an extra qualification in Nepal and is very much counted while seeking employment in private sector.

Most of the schools do not have laboratory facilities. The courses of study upto secondary level do not include practical part. Hence, the students up to this level (Grade X) get only theoritical knowledge in Chemistry. In fact, "learning by doing" is completely missing so the subject might have appeared to be boring to the children. Previously, science was an optional subject at the secondary level because of lack of qualified teachers specially in remote areas of the country. But, now it has been a compulsory subject as its importance has been realised.

Top of Page

4.2. Under graduate level (Intermediate/Proficiency Certificate/Higher Secondary and Bachelor)

Intermediate of science (KU)/Proficiency Certificate (T.U.)/Higher Secondary (10 +2) is two years course. The medium of teaching is English and the courses of study are based on that of Indian universities. Students have to take both theoritical and practical classes. Because of insufficiency of lab. equipments with respect to the number of students in the class, some of the experiments have to be done in groups. After this level, students with high scores get opportunity for studying degree courses in technical subjects (e.g. Medicine, Engineering & etc.) at home or abroad.

After completing this level of education students wishing to go for higher studies join B.Sc. course which is of two years in Tribhuvan University and four years in Kathmandu University. At this level in Tribhuvan University, students have to study only three subjects (e.g. Physics, Chemistry & Mathematics or other combinations). Chemistry subject is divided into only three branches - Physical, Inorganic and Organic. Separate branches for Analytical and Environmental Chemistry do not exist but some of these are included in the above mentioned three branches. In Kathmandu University B.Sc. programme focuses more on applied fields.

Top of Page

4.3. Post Graduate Level (M.Sc. & Ph.D. degree)

Central Department of Chemistry of Tribhuvan University is the only institution in Nepal that offers M.Sc. or Ph.D. degree courses in Chemistry. M.Sc. course is of two years. In the first year all the three branches Physical, Inorganic and Organic Chemistry are taught. In the second year specialization in any one of these branches is provided.

Top of Page

4.4. Problems and Limitations

The number of students admitted in the M.Sc. course is generally higher than the actual capacity of the Department. Laboratories are poorly equipped. Library facilities are inadequate and access to the international journals and publications is limited. Teaching is based on text books rather than providing up to date knowledge based on recent journals and publications. Short term research works as a part of M.Sc. course is not compulsory. Teaching methodology is generally lecture type and the students participation in the class is minimal. Use of teaching aids such as over head projector and computer are almost lacking. Generally there is no system of distributing hand-outs in the class. Planning the theory class in connection with the lab. work is seldom done. Regular assessment tests are not often taken. Postgraduate chemists with specialization in the field of Analytical, Environmental & Industrial chemistry are in demand in the country which the university is not producing at present.

Top of Page

5.EXAMINATION SYSTEM

Questions papers asked in School Leaving Cerfificate, Proficiency Certificate, Bachelor of Science and Master of Science levels are given in the annex - 2.

5.1. School Level (up to Secondary)

Final examinations of V, VIII & X grades are conducted by the District Education Offices in each district which are under the Ministry of Education. The examinations of other grades are conducted by the schools themselves. After getting through grade X district level examination the students then have to appear at the School Leaving Certificate examination which is held on national level by the Board which is also under the Ministry of Education. The questions asked in Chemistry used to be subjective type requiring long answers but now a days slight deviation is seen with the introduction of some short (objective type) questions. The students from private schools are found to perform better than those from Government Schools. This examination used to be called Matriculation in old days. Only after getting through this examination the students can join university for Intermediate/Proficiency Certificate or (10+2) Higher Secondary Level. Admission is based on the result of the entrance examination and the score achieved in the School Leaving Certificate examination.

Top of Page

5.2. School Level (Higher Secondary)

Out of the three streams of grade XI & XII, Higher Secondary (10+2) is the newly introduced one. At present very few schools have adopted this level. Examinations are held annually both for written & practical portions separately. The questions asked are of three types and allocation of marks are very short (40%), short (33.4%) and long (26.6%) with less choices than in proficiency level.

5.3. Proficiency Certificate Level (T.U)

Campuses affiliated to Tribhuvan University offer this stream of grade XI & XII. At present majority of the students follow this one as it is available all over the country. Examinations are held annualy both for written & practical portions separately. Questions asked are subjective type. Usually questions start with the words like "discuss" "describe", "show your acquaintance with", "Write a neat labelled diagram" etc. Such types of questions may not critically test a students real understanding of the subject matter. Out of twelve questions asked, only eight have to be answered. Hence, the students have the liberty of selecting the topics for the preparation instead of going through the whole course.

Top of Page

5.4. IntermeDiate of Science (K.U)

As Kathmandu University is the newly established one so this stream of grades XI & XII is also new. Annual examinations are held for both written & practical portions separately. Assessment tests are frequently taken. The examination paper is divided into three parts allocation of marks are multiple choice questions (25%), structured questions (25%) and free response questions (50%). It has been modelled after "A" level system of United Kingdom.

Top of Page

5.5. Bachelor of Science (T.U.)

Examination are held annually both for written & practical portions separately. Questions asked in written examinations are subjective type. Out of the total marks in Chemistry (150 each year) 66% is allocated for written & 33% for practical examinations. Out of nine questions asked in written examination, only six have to be answered so the students can select the topics of their interest for preparation. In practical examination only one set of experiment has to be done and full assessment of the whole year is based on this. The external examiner invited in practical examination asks oral question to each of the students.

Top of Page

5.6. Master of Science (T.U.)

This is a two years course and the examinations are held annually both for written & practical portions separately. Questions asked in written examinations are subjective type. Out of the twelve question in organic and ten question in Physical and inorganic chemistry asked in written examination only six questions have to be attempted so the students can omit some of the topics which they feel difficult to understand. In practical examination only one set of experiment has to be done and the assessment of the whole year is based on this. Generally, renowned Professor from abroad are invited as the external examiner in practical examinations and the students have to face oral questions from him. Few meritorious studens in second year M.Sc. course are given opportunity to do M.Sc. dessertation work in leu of regular practical work. In the first year the total mark is 450 and in the second year it is 550. Out of the total marks 66% is allocated for written examination and 33% for practical examination.

About two decades ago symester system with emphasis on short questions (American system) was tried but some how it did not turned out to be suitable. Now again annual system has been adopted.

Top of Page

5.7. Some Problems and Limitations

Generally, the results of the examinations are published very late (few months to half of a year from the date of the examination). As result of this, the valuable time of the students gets wasted. Generally, the time gap between the ending of a certain level and the begining of the next higher level is long. This sort of university calender keeps the students idle for long time. In finals of the practical examination a student is asked to draw a sheet of question from the question sheets kept folded on a desk. On the basis of the performance of this single set of experiment the students assessment of the whole year is made. This type of assessment where the luck is also one of the factor to be counted will not reflect the students actual ability regarding all the experiments that have been done in the class in one year.

In essence, it can be said that two types of problems are encountered which are due to lack of adequate resources and lack of efficient management. It is hoped that in due course of time these problems will be gradually sorted out. The future of education as a whole and Chemical education in Nepal is definetely bright specially in contest with the re-installation of multi party democracy in the country which took place about six years ago (in 1990).

Top of Page

6. TEXT BOOK

For grades (I-V) and (VI-VIII), there are several text books recommended by a curriculum board under Ministry of Education. Each school is free to choose text book from recommended list of books. There is a compulsory text for grade (IX-X) to be followed in each school. The text books followed in Government schools are in Nepalese language but in private schools books being followed are in English language. University's Subject Committee is responsible for prescribing university level text books.

6.1. Some of Problems and Limitations

There are very few books written by Nepalese Chemists. Most of the prescribed texts are foreign text books. There seems to be lacking comprehensive text to cover entire portion of the syllabus. Because of centralized examination system, students face difficulty in not having an comprehensive text. There has been little change in nature of text book especially in proficiency certificate level. A case in point is a book called "A text book of Inorganic Chemistry, first published in 1926 and its revised edition is still a prescribed text. Text books are generally descriptive in nature. They fail to create adequate curiosity and interest in students.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors wish to thank Mr. Jaya Krishna Shrestha (former Head of Central Department of Chemistry, T.U., Nepal) for his helpful comments and advices during this exercise.

Annex 1. COURSE OF STUDY IN CHEMISTRY (Extracts)

Proficiency Certificate Level

Part I

      a. Chemical symbols and their significance     g. Periodic table : 
          (review lecture)	      	      	     h. Acids
      b. States of Matter :                             Non-metals : 
      c. Atomic Structure :                             Metals :
      d. Valency, variable valency                      Sodium :
      e. Chemical Change and Chemical Equations :       Alkaline Earth Metals :
      f. Oxidation & Reduction :                        Coinage metals (Copper) :

Part II

      A. General Chemistry                              Structure of Organic Compounds and their
         Laws of Stoichiometry  :                                                        Naming :          
         Equivalent weights & Atomic Weights :          Hydrocarbons :
         Molecules and molecular weight :               Ethylene : 
         Acidimetry and Alkalimetry :                   Acetylene :
         Electrochemistry :                             Alkyl Halides :
         Chemical kinetics and Chemical                 Alcohol :
                            Equiliorium:                Ether :
      B. Metals :                                       Aldehydes and Ketones :
         Zinc :                                         Carboxylic Acids :
         Mercury :                                      Amines :
         Iron :                                         Aromatic compounds :
      C. Organic :                                      Benzene :
         Introduction to organic chemistry : 
         Analysis of organic compounds and their 
                                        formulae: 
  

Course of Study of Bachelor Level

(First year)

Chemistry

Paper I (Full Marks : 100)

Section A : Physical Section B : Inorganic
Atomic Structure
Chemical Periodicity
Radioactivity
Atomic Properties
Kinetic Theory
Ionic Compound
Chemical Equilibrium
Principles of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis
Laws of Dilute Solutions
Co-ordination Complexes
Osmotic Pressure
Group Discussions
Electrochemistry
Chemical Kinetics

Practical Paper I (Full Marks : 50)

Systematic qualitative analysis of the mixtures of inorganic salt containing not more than 4 radical (two cations and two anions). Volumetric analysis involving acidimetry and alkalimetry. Volumetric analysis involving redox titrations (permanganometry) and estimation of iron in Mohr's salt. Volumetric estimation of Ca in CaCO3, Iodometric and precipitation titrations (argentrimetry)

Course of Study of Bachelor Level

(Second year)

Chemistry (Full Marks : 100)

Section A : Physical                                  Nucleophilic Aliphatic Substitution
Thermodynamics                                        Resonance and Aromatic Character
Colloids                                              Nucleophilic Addition of Carbonyl 
Catalysis                                             Compounds
Electrochemistry                                      Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution
Spectrophotometry                                     Stereochemistry 
                                                      Carbohydrates
                                                      Heterocyclic Compounds
Section B : Orbital Pictures of Molecules             Aminoacids and Proteins
Electronic Effects                                    Cyclic Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Physico-Chemical Methods Concerning Reaction          Reactions Involving Carbanion
 Mechanism                                            Dicarboxylic Acids
Energetic of Reaction                                 Reactions Involving Carbanion
Free Radical Substitution                             Dicarboxylic Acids
Elimination                                           Keto Acids
Electrophilic and Free Radical Addition               Hydroxy Acids
                                                      Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds

Practical Paper II (Full Marks : 50)

Detection of N, S and halogens in organic compounds, Identification of functional groups, Preparations of organic compounds involving acetylation and hydrolysis. Preparation of Phenolphthalein. Determination of melting point of organic compounds.

Some inorganic preparations (at least 3 compounds) Gravimetric analysis of iron, Gravimetric estimation of sulphate in K2SO4.

Preparation of buffer solution and determination of pH by indicator method.

Annex - 2 . EXAMPLE OF EXAMINATIONS (Extracts)

School Living Certificate Examination (Grade 10)

Group B Chemistry only

Attempt 3 questions from this group. Q No. 6 is compulsory.

6(a).What is meant by a solution ? In most solutions the solute is
     a solid and the solvent is liquid. This is not always true.
     Give four different examples of solutions where this is not
     true. (No description is required.)                                   1+(1/2)4=3

 (b).Give the meaning of solubility curve. The solubility of
     common salt at 30oC is 200. What amount of water is
     required to prepare a saturated solution for 1 Kg of the salt ?       1+2=3

 (c).What are the causes of temporary hardness in water ? Write
     one method with chemical reactions to remove such hardness            1+1+1=3

7.   Ammonia gas can be prepared in the laboratory by heating two
     solid substances together :
  I. Name two solid substances with formula which could be used in it.     1+1=2

  ii. Write a balanced equation for this chemical reaction.                1+1=2

  iii. Draw a neat and well labelled diagram of the apparatus
     for the preparation of ammonia gas in the laboratory                  1+1=2

  iv. Mention two uses of this gas.                                        1+1+2

8(a).Explain the special properties of highly reactive non-metal on
     the basis of electronic configuration of atoms and write one
     example of such highly reactive non-metal.                            3+1=4

 (b).What do you mean by molecular formula ? What is its 1+1+1+1=4
     importance ? Write the molecular formulae of sodium
     bicarbonate and sodium sulphate.

9.   Explain the meaning of the term - Indicator. Give full forms
     (words) of P.V.C., D.D.T., and B.H.C. And write one use
     of each of them (No description).                                     2+(1+1)x3=8

Proficiency Certificate Level

(First Year)

Time : 3 hrs. (Full Marks : 100)

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable

The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Attempt EIGHT questions, selecting at least ONE each from Group A and B and TWO from Group C.

Group A

1. Illustrate with example any four different types of chemical reactions.        (6)
   The solubility of a salt is 25 at 25oC. What amount of salt will be
   present in 75 g of its saturated solution at that temperature ?                (4)

2. State Charles' law and show how it leads to the relationship.
   V T when P is constant                                                         (4)
   If 40 l of nitrogen are collected at 22oC over water at a pressure of
   0.957 atm, what is the volume of dry nitrogen at STP, given aqueous
   tension at 22oC = 19.76 mm ?                                                   (6)

3. Write a short note on Bronsted - Lowry's definition of acid-base
   behaviour and show how it differs from the Arrhenius difinition            ( 5+2(1/2) )

   Write electron dot formula of ammonia and show hot it can function
   as a lewis base.                                                               (2)

(Continue...)

Proficiency Certificate Level

(Second year)

Time : 3 hrs. (Full Marks : 80)

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable.

The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Attempt EIGHT questions, slecting at least ONE from Group A and Group B and TWO from Group C.

Group A.

1. State Avagardro's hypothesis and show how it leads to the relationship,
   molecular weight=twice the vapour density.                                   (1+4)
   2g. of a substance on vapourisation gave 3 litres of vapour at 27oC
   and 780 mm pressure. What is the molecular weight of the substance ?          (5)

2. Explain clearly what you understand when it is said that a solution of
   sodium carbonate is decinormal and also state giving reason whether the
   solution can be used as a standard solution.                                  (4)

   18 ml of N/2 NCl solution, 10.3 ml of 2N HCl solution and
   16.4 ml of N/10 HCl solution are mixed together. Calculate the strength
   of the mixture in terms of normality and grams per litre.                     (6)

3. State and explain any two of the following :                                 (5X5)
   a. Faraday's second law of electrolysis
   b. Le-Chatelier's principle
   c. Dulong and Petit's law

(Continue...)

Bachelor Level/I Year/Science

Chemistry I Paper (Full Marks : 100) (Time : 3 hrs.)

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable.

The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Attempt any TWO questions from Group A and andy FOUR from Group B.

Group A

1. Discuss the deviation of real gases from ideal gas behaviour. How are
   they accounted for in Van der Waal's equation ? Calculate the temperature
   at which 2 moles of nitrogen will occupy a volume of 10 litres at a pressure
   of 15 atm. (Vander Waal's constants for N2: a = 1.39 lit. atm. mol-1;
   b=0.039 lit-atm. mol-1. Also R = 0.082 lit. atm/deg./mol.)                        (6+4+6)

2. State and derive Raoult's law for lowering of vapour pressure. Explain its 
   limitations.                                                                      (7+3+6)

   Dissolution of 18.2 of urea in 100 g of water at 50oC produced a lowering of
   vapour pressure by 5 mm Hg. Calculate the molecular weight of urea if the 
   vapour pressure of pure water at 50oC is 92 mm Hg.

3. Write notes on any two of the following :                                          (8+8)
   a. Kohlrausch's law b. Order & molecularity of a reaction
   c. Pauti exclusion principle d. Le-chatlier's principle

(Continue...)

Bachelor Level / II Year/ Science

Chemistry II Paper (Full Marks : 100) (Time : 3 hrs.)

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable.

The figures in the margin indicate full marks. 4 marks for general impression.

Attempt SIX questions, any TWO from Group A and any FOUR from Group B.

Group A

1. Deduce Kirchoff's equation and explain its significance. When 1
   mole of liquid benzene is completely burnt in oxygen to form liquid water
   and carbon dioxide gas, the heat evolved is 781 kcal at 25oC and constant
   pressure, Calculate the beat of the reaction at constant volume at the same
   temperature.                                                                     8+8

2. What do you understand by single electrode potential ? Explain the use of
   the calomel electrode for determination of single electrode potential.
   Comment on the function of the salt bridge used.                                 6+8+2

3. What are colloids ? Distinguish between lyophobic and lyophilic
   colloids. Describe Bredig's method of preparing lyophobic
   colloids and the use of ultrafiltration in its purification.                     3+5+5+3

4. Write short notes on any two (a) Adsorption theory of hetereogeneous
   catalysis. (b) Theory of strong electrolytes, (c) Beer-Lambert's law and
   (d) Criteria of catalysis.                                                       8x2

(Continue...)

Master Level/I Year

Science (Organic Chemistry)

(Full Marks : 100) (Time : 4 hours)

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable. The questions are of equal value.

Attempt any SIX questions, selecting at least ONE from each group.

Group A

1. Define aromatic, homoaromatic, non-aromatic and anti-aromatic compounds 
   with examples. Also explain which of the following are aromatic or 
   non-aromatic or anti-aromatic.

   (a) Cyclobutadiene   (b) Cyclopropenyl anion   (c) Tropolones
   (d) Fulvenes         (e) Sydnone               (f) Ferrocene.

2. Answer any four of the following :

   (a) Explain why the carbon-chlorine bond distance decreases in the series:
       Ethylchloride, vinylchloride and chloroacetylene.

   (b) Explain the face that it is impossible to remove a proton (H+) from 
       ethane while a very strong base will remove a proton from acetylene 
       according to the equation,.
                                          _
                     HC = CH + B --> HC = C+BH.

(c) Explain why is it easier to generate a carbonium ion bonded to benzene 
    ring than it is to make methyl carbonium ion.

(d) Ethoxide ion is a much stronger base than acetate ion. Explain

(e) The more substituted a free radical, the more stable it is and faster 
    it is formed. Explain.

3. Write short notes on any three of the following :

   (a) Homoconjugation   (b) Benzyne and nitrene intermediates
   (c) C13-NMR           (d) Kinetic method of determining reaction mechanism.

OR
   Discuss the 1H-NMR spectrum of ethylacetate.

(Continue...)

Master Level/I Year/Science

Chemistry I Paper (Physical Chemistry)

(Full Marks : 100) (Time : 4 hours.)

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable.

The questions are of equal value.

Attempt any SIX questions selecting at least ONE question from each group.

Group A

1. What are the main assumptions of Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolyte ?
   Explain how this theory accounts for the variation of equivalent conductance 
   with dilution of strong electrolytes. Calculate the ionic strength of 0.3 M 
   aluminium sulphate.

2. What are concentration cells ? Derive an expression for the emf of an 
   electrolyte concentration cell with transference. Calculate the emf of 
   the following cell, 

               Ag/AgNO3(0.1M)/AgNO3(0.001M)/Ag

   Activity coefficient of 0.1 M and 0.001 M AgNO3 are 0.62 and 0.99 respectively
   and transference number of cation is 0.465.

Group B

3. What is Gibb's free energy function ? Discuss criterion of spontaneity for a 
   physicochemical change using this function.

   Calculate  G and equilibrium constant for the following reaction at 25oC.

               C(graphite) + 2H2(g) --> CH4(g)

   having given,
                              C(graphite)  2H2(g)  CH4(g)
                              ____________________________

              Hfo KJ mol-        9.0       0.0   -74.83
             So J K-1 mol-1       5.68    130.6   188.2

(Continue...)

Master Level/I Year /Science

Chemistry II Paper (Inorganic Chemistry)

(Full Marks : 100) (Time : 4 hours.)

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable.

The questions are of equal value.

Attempt any SIX questions.

1. Derive the wave function and energy for the particle in a one dimensional box.

2. (a) What are three important types of hybrid orbitals that can be formed by an
       atom with onlys and p orbitals in the valence shell ? Describe the molecular 
       geometry which each of these produces.
   (b) Using both the MO approach and the resonance energy explain why the NO bond 
       in NO3- have a bond order of 1.

3. Write short notes on any two :
   (a) Nuclear fission    (b) Radioactive distintegration series    (c) Binding energy

4. Attempt any two of the following :
   (a) The complex [NiCN)]4-2 is diamagnetic but [NiCl4]-2 is paramagnetic.

       Explain it by using simple Crystal Foeld Theory.

   (b) Diamagnetic complexes of cobalt (III) such as [Co(NH3)6]+3 [Co(en)3]+3 are 
       orange yellow. In contrast the paramagnetic complexes [CoF6]-3 and [Co(H2O)3F3] 
       are blue. Explain qualitatively this difference in colour.

   (c) Show that John Tellor distortion is expected for d9 configuration (octahedral 
       environment)

5. Write notes on any two of the following :
   (a) Linkage isomerism            (b) Orgel diagram
   (c) Nephelauxetic series         (d) Term Symbols.

6. What are mixed metal oxides ? How are the mixed metal oxides of Ti and Zr have 
   variable oxidation states ? Give their known oxidation states and stereo chemistry.

OR
   Give a group discussion of Gr VI A (Mo. W)

7. Discuss the electronic configuration and oxidation states of Lanthanides. Why is 
   that it is difficult to separate the Lanthanides. Discuss at least one method which
   can be used for the separation of Lanthanides.

Top of Page



Back to Chemical Education in Ajia Pacific Home Page